Aims and Scope
Evaluation of Oxidation Process by Ozonation and Glucose Oxidase Enzyme on the Degradation of Benzoquinone in Wheat FlourTarek A. El-Desouky, Hassan B.H. Hussain
Wheat flour is an important food ingredient for humans, which is the basic ingredient of bread and other bakery products.
This study aimed to assess the effect of adding Glucose Oxidase (GOX), and exposure to ozone gas on methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone (MBQ), and ethyl-1, 4-benzoquinone (EBQ) secreted by Tribolium castaneum in flour.
The flour contaminated by MBQ and EBQ was treated with ozone gas at (10, 20, and 40 ppm) with exposure times (15, 30, and 45 min). Similarly, GOX was added to flour at (10, 15, and 20 ppm), leaving the dough for periods between 10 and 45 min after treatments. The MBQ and EBQ determined by HPLC, and the UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to describe the changes that occurred in the main structure of EBQ after ozonation at 40 ppm for 45 min.
The results indicated that adding GOX enzyme to the flour at level 20 ppm degrade the MBQ to 13.7, 20.23, and 39.6 after 15, 30, and 45 min from mixing time, respectively. On the other hnad, the EBQ degrades to 13.6, 18.9, and 35.9%. In contrast, the percentages of degradation of MBQ and EBQ increases after ozonation at 40 ppm for 45min were 84.1 and 78.8%, respectively. The results obtained by UV–vis spectroscopy and FTIR reflect that many oxidation products formed as aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids.
In general, ozonation was a reliable treatment for the degradation of benzoquinone in flour.
December 31, 2021
- October 05, 2021
- March 22, 2021
- February 12, 2021
- May 03, 2021
- October 28, 2021
Study of the Interaction of Zinc Cation with Azithromycin and its Significance in the COVID-19 Treatment: A Molecular ApproachJacques H. Poupaert, Blanche Aguida, Codjo Hountondji
On account of the current COVID-19 pandemic, we have explored the importance of azithromycin and zinc in the treatment of the coronavirus disease by studying the interaction between the cation Zn++ and azithromycin with the tools of the semi-empirical quantum mechanics PM3 method.
By this approach, the niche in which Zn++ is located was determined. Zn++ creates a strong clastic binding between an amine and a hydroxyl group located on the amino-hexose side-chain. Such an interaction serves as a shuttle and allows zinc cation to invade endocellular structures.
In this triple collaborative association, the role of hydroxychloroquine would be more that of a chaotropic agent at plasmic membranes, which facilitates access to the azithromycin-Zn++ equipage into key internal compartments.
Finally, we show that both azithromycin and Zn++ are susceptible to play a direct role against the replication and the assembly of SARS-CoV-2 particles.
September 22, 2020