Evaluation of Oxidation Process by Ozonation and Glucose Oxidase Enzyme on the Degradation of Benzoquinone in Wheat Flour

Tarek A. El-Desouky1, *, Hassan B.H. Hussain2
1 Department of Food Toxicology and Contaminant, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
2 Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

© 2021 El-Desouky and Hussain

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Food Toxicology and Contaminant, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; E-mail:



Wheat flour is an important food ingredient for humans, which is the basic ingredient of bread and other bakery products.


This study aimed to assess the effect of adding Glucose Oxidase (GOX), and exposure to ozone gas on methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone (MBQ), and ethyl-1, 4-benzoquinone (EBQ) secreted by Tribolium castaneum in flour.


The flour contaminated by MBQ and EBQ was treated with ozone gas at (10, 20, and 40 ppm) with exposure times (15, 30, and 45 min). Similarly, GOX was added to flour at (10, 15, and 20 ppm), leaving the dough for periods between 10 and 45 min after treatments. The MBQ and EBQ determined by HPLC, and the UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to describe the changes that occurred in the main structure of EBQ after ozonation at 40 ppm for 45 min.


The results indicated that adding GOX enzyme to the flour at level 20 ppm degrade the MBQ to 13.7, 20.23, and 39.6 after 15, 30, and 45 min from mixing time, respectively. On the other hnad, the EBQ degrades to 13.6, 18.9, and 35.9%. In contrast, the percentages of degradation of MBQ and EBQ increases after ozonation at 40 ppm for 45min were 84.1 and 78.8%, respectively. The results obtained by UV–vis spectroscopy and FTIR reflect that many oxidation products formed as aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids.


In general, ozonation was a reliable treatment for the degradation of benzoquinone in flour.

Keywords: Benzoquinone, Degradation, Flour, Ozonation, Glucose oxidase, Tribolium castaneum.