Comparative Studies on the Lipid Composition of Blood Plum (Haematostaphis Barteri) Pulp and Seed Oils



Matthew Olaleke Aremu1, *, Hashim Ibrahim2, Chrysantus Andrew1, 3
1 Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020, Taraba State, Nigeria
2 Department of Chemistry, Federal University Lafia, PMB 146, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
3 Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK


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© 2017 Aremu et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020, Taraba State, Nigeria; Tel: +2348065611658; E-mail: lekearemu@gmail.com


Abstract

Background:

Exploring under–utilized plant fruits could be of high significance for food security and nutritional requirements, therefore, it can effectively add to the overall improvement of a nation’s economy. Blood plum (Haematostaphis barteri) is a wild edible vegetable and its fruit contains pulp and oily seed which are edible.

Methods:

A study was carried out to determine fatty acid profile, phospholipid and phytosterol contents as well as some physicochemical parameters of pulp and seed oils of Haematostaphis barteri (popularly known as blood plum) using standard analytical techniques.

Results:

The most concentrated fatty acids were palmitic acid (15.34%) < oleic acid (22.31%) < linoleic acid (50.56%) for the pulp oil while that of seed oil were oleic acid (12.34%) < palmitic acid (25.37%) < linoleic acid (38.87%). Arachidic, behenic, lignoceric and palmitoleic acids were all present in small quantities with none of them recording up to 1.0% in either of the samples. Lauric was determined but not detected in the pulp oil. The fatty acid composition of pulp and seed oils contained a healthy mixture of all the types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The value of polyunsaturated/saturated index (P/S) which is associated to the impact on human health was higher in the pulp oil (2.47). Phospatidylinositol had the highest content (17.69 mg/100g) in the pulp oil while the highest content in seed oil was phosphatidylcholine (351.82 mg/100g). The total phytosterols for pulp and seed oils were 17.09 and 436.37 mg/100g, respectively. The results of some physicochemical parameters of pulp and seed oils were colour (light amber yellow and pale yellow), kinematic viscosity (9.15 and 10.62 mm2/s), specific gravity (0.92 and 0.92), unsaponifiable matter (1.63 and 2.54%), flash point 29.00 and 295.00oC), saponification value (189.40 and 190.22 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (8.15 and 9.20 meq O2/kg), iodine value (94.24 and 122.42 mg of I/100 g) and acid value (16.50 and 24.00 mg KOH/g), respectively.

Conclusion:

Generally, high percentage PUFA and low value of cholesterol may make either of the sample oils, a good food source on health wise basis. It was also revealed that both sample oils may be developed into a commercial product for use in food products.

Keywords: Fatty acids, Phospholipids, Phytosterols, Physico-chemicals, Haematostaphis barteri, Pulp, Seed.