REVIEW ARTICLE


Activity of Antimicrobial Peptide; Cathelicidin, on Bacterial Infection



Ami Febriza1, *, Mochammad Hatta2, Rosdiana Natzir3, Vivien N.A. Kasim4, Hasta H. Idrus5
1 Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar, Indonesia, Postgraduate Doctoral Candidate of Science of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
2 Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
3 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
4 Faculty of Sport and Health, University of State Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia
5 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Muslim Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia


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© 2019 Febriza et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar, Jl Sultan Alauddin no. 259, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia;
Tel: 085256655987; E-mail: amifebriza@med.unismuh.ac.id


Abstract

Antimicrobial peptide is an effector molecule from the natural immune system which plays a central role in defense as an antimicrobial. Cathelicidin is one of the antimicrobial peptides. Human only has one cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide called LL-37 or hCAP18. The detailed mechanism on CAMP (Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide) gene regulation is still unknown, however, cathelicidin is found to have upregulation when there is bacterial infection. The most effective expression inducer of CAMP gene is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3), which is the active form of vitamin D. Vitamin D mediates cathelicidin synthesis through the expression of Vitamin D Receptor (VDR), then the interaction activates CAMP gene to express cathelicidin. The work mechanisms of cathelicidin against bacterial infection include damaging the bacterial cell membrane, inducing autophagy process of macrophage cell, neutralizing LPS produced by bacteria, and chemotactic activities of PMNs, monocytes and lymphocytes.

Keywords: Antimicrobial peptide, Bacterial infection, Cathelicidin, PMNs, Vitamin D.Receptor, Lymphocytes.